Extracting the very best from intensified CCD
and sCMOS imaging sensor technologies.
Plasmas can be artificially produced by different means (e.g. laser ablation, coupling of capacitive / inductive power source to ionised gas, …). The understanding of their properties and dynamics is relevant to a number fields such as fusion, thin films deposition, micro-electronics, material characterization, display systems, surface treatment, fundamental physics, environmental & health.
Gated detectors can be used to determine optical parameters from which fundamental plasma properties can be derived. Accurate nanosecond-scale gating of image intensifier-based detectors can be used to sample plasma dynamics, or to isolate the useful plasma information generated by pulsed lasers.
Case Study: Thomson Scattering
Case Study: Colliding Plasmas and Stagnation Layers
Case Study: Imaging of Laser-induced Plasma Species
Case Study: Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence as a Plasma Diagnostic
Quantum entanglement occurs when two particles remain connected, even over large distances, so that actions performed on one particle have an effect on the other. Einstein described photon entanglement as "Spooky action at a distance”. Quantum entanglement understanding is the basis of the growing fields of quantum computing and quantum cryptography.
The accurate shuttering capabilities and higher sensitivity of the iStar sCMOS provide high discrimination capabilities for entangled and non-entangled photons.Request Pricing
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to determine the elemental composition of various solids, liquids and gases. A high power laser pulse is focused on to a sample to create a plasma. Emission from the atoms and ions in the plasma is collected and analysed by a spectrograph and gated detector to determine the elemental composition or the elemental concentrations in the sample.
The gating capabilities of the iStar are used to efficiently shutter the laser, while also isolating the useful atomic information from the initial broadband Bremsstrahlung continuum.Request Pricing
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is one of the primary techniques used in fluid dynamics Research to non-invasively access information on the dynamics and chemistry of heated flows and flames. It is based on a (pulsed) laser with a beam optically shaped into a sheet of light , which then traverses the flow/flame to analyse and excites the fluorescent species crossing the laser beam path. The fluorescence is then imaged onto a gated detector to shutter the unwanted laser pulse.
The iStar sCMOS high frame rates comfortably meets the requirement of Nd:YAG-based PLIF setups running typically at 15 Hz.It also provides excellent dynamic range and sensitivity compared to CCD or Interline-based gated detectors.
The rapid frame-pair acquisition mode suits flow analysis by PLIF-PIV, with the gating capabilities of the iStar sCMOS allowing high unwanted background rejection.
Case Study: Combustion Spectroscopy
This broad definition includes techniques such as Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) or second, third of high harmonic generation (SHG, THG and HHG respectively).
The iStar gating capabilities are used to precisely isolate useful signal information while preventing unwanted background.
Case Study: Characterization of Ultrashort and VUV Pulses
Pulsed Luminescence / Fluorescence / Photoluminescence / Radioluminescence imaging and spectroscopy techniques are used for a large variety of applications including study of metal complex, organic LEDs, quantum dots, cell dynamics, stand-off chemical compounds detection, scintillators characterization.
Gated detectors are used to shutter the unwanted pulsed excitation source, but also to characterise species luminescence decay.
The gating capabilities and accuracy of the iStar series allow study of luminescence decay behaviours down to the nanosecond range. The iStar photocathode options allow to closely match the luminescence spectral characteristics of the sample for both imaging and spectroscopy studies.Request Pricing
The iStar family features a range of high resolution sensors for the sharpest images and spectral signatures acquisition, while maintaining the highest dynamic range.
It uses a fiber-coupling arrangement to the image intensifiers for maximum collection efficiency, unlike lens-coupled configurations that would suffer from lower throughput, image vignetting and distortion.
|MODELS||iStar CCD 312||iStar CCD 320||iStar CCD 334||iStar CCD 340||iStar sCMOS|
|Pixel Matrix||512 x 512||1024 x 256||1024 x 1024||2048 x 512||2560 x 2160|
|Pixel size (µm)||24||26||13||13.5||6.5|
|High spatial / spectral resolution||-||-||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Fast imaging rates||Yes||-||-||-||Yes|
|Fast spectral rates||Yes||Yes||Yes||-||Yes|
|Simultaneous broadband Spectroscopy||-||Yes||-||Yes||-|
Latest generation of ultra low-jitter, ultra-low insertion delay electronics for accurate timing and synchronization of sensor, image intensifier gating and external hardware.
The response of an ICCD is governed by the Quantum Efficiency (QE) of the intensifier tube, which is determined by the combination of the input window and the photocathode. The input window usually determines the lower wavelength limit while the photocathode determines the long wavelength response.
Andor iStar integrates the latest generation of market-leading intensifiers with ultrafast response, high resolution and low-noise multi alkali-based Gen 2 and filmless GaAs-based Gen 3 types, gating down to the nanosecond regime, response from VUV (129 nm) to SWIR (1,100 nm) and peak QE up to 50%
|Photocathode||Type||Coverage||Peak QE (typ)||Min. gating speed||Recommendations|
|-03||Gen 2||180-850 nm||18%||<2 ns||Plasma imaging, LIBS, transient luminescence and absorption, combustion (LIF/PLIF)|
|-04||Gen 2||180-850 nm||18%||<2 ns||P46 phosphor for ultrafast kinetics|
|-05||Gen 2||120-850 nm||16%||<5 ns||MgF2 window for VUV spectroscopy|
|-13||Gen 2||180-920 nm||13.5%||<50 ns||NIR transient photoluminescence|
|-63||Gen 3||280-760 nm||48%||<2 ns||Best sensitivity for VIS transient luminescence, plasma studies and photon counting|
|-73||Gen 3||280-910nm||26%||<2 ns||Best NIR sensitivity for VIS-IR transient luminescence, plasma studies and photon counting|
|-83||Gen 2||180-850nm||25%||<100 ns||Slow transient studies with maximum UV collection|
|-93||Gen 3||180-850 nm||4%||<3 ns||NIR to IR transient photoluminescence|
|-A3||Gen 3||280-810nm||40%||<2 ns||Best sensitivity for VIS-NIR transient luminescence, plasma studies and photon counting|
|-E3||Gen 2||180-850 nm||22%||<2ns||Best compromise between high QE in the UV and ns gating - ideal for LIBS, transient luminescence and absorption, plasma studies, combustion(LIF/PLIF)|
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|Comparative read noise||Comparative dynamic range|
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|Sustained full-frame imaging rates (fps)||Maximum sustained spectral rates (sps)|
* 2x2 binning (13 µm pix.), effective 1.4 MP
Competitor Interline ICCD: 1MP, 12.8 µm pixel size
Competitor emICCD: 1 MP, 13 µm pixel size
|Models||iStar CCD 312||iStar CCD 320||iStar CCD 334||iStar CCD 340||iStar sCMOS|
|Max Frame rate||15.8 fps||15.9 fps||4.2 fps||2.5 fps||50 fps|
|Spectral ratesFVBCrop mode / ROI||291 / 6.667||323 / 3.571||145 / 3.450||125 / 1.825||4.008|
|Pixel well depth||320,000 e-||500,000 e-||100,000 e-||100,000 e-||30,000 e-|
|Lowest read noise||5.4 e-||7 e-||5 e-||6 e-||2.6 e-|
|Min. dark current||0.25 e-/pix/s||0.2 e-/pix/s||0.1 e-/pix/s||0.1 e-/pix/s||0.18 e-/pix/s|
|Contact Us||Request Pricing||Request Pricing||Request Pricing||Request Pricing||Request Pricing|
2x2 binning (13 µm pix.), effective 1.4 MP