Part of the Oxford Instruments Group

Detection Solutions For Fusion Science 

Fusion plasma characterisation is essential for the development of nuclear fusion, a clean and renewable energy source that could help the world achieve net zero goals. However, these tasks require high-sensitivity and high-speed detection solutions that can operate in challenging environments, such as those found in Z-pinch Fusion, Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), Stellarator and Tokomak reactors. Andor’s portfolio of intensified gated cameras, direct detection X-ray cameras and spectrographs is designed to meet these needs and provide a wide range of fusion diagnostics solutions.

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Fusion Science Detection Solutions

Whether you need imaging or spectroscopy, Andor has the right solution for you. Andor’s cameras and spectrographs are highly sensitive and versatile, with a variety of opto-mechanical interfaces, triggering and acquisition setup options to suit your needs. Andor’s cameras offer tailored solutions from the Near-Infrared to hard X-rays.


  • 50 frames/sec (5.5 MP sensor) Up to 4 kHz with ROI
  • <2 ns time resolution
  • High dynamic range
  • Sensitivity down to single photon
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Direct & Indirect X-ray Detection

  • Large area sCMOS and CCD cameras
  • Lens and fibre coupled scintillator options
  • Direct and indirect detection
  • High dynamic range & sensitivity
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Kymera Spectrographs, Newton and iXon Cameras

  • High sensitivity optical spectrographs
  • Up to Multi-kHz spectral rates
  • High throughput and high spectral resolution
  • Highly modular spectrographs
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Fusion Science Applications and Techniques

Plasma Diagnostics

Plasmas are ionised gases that can be created naturally or artificially by an injection of energy. This can be achieved through different methods such as laser ablation or coupling of capacitive / inductive power source to ionised gas. Plasmas have many applications in fields such as fusion, thin films deposition, micro-electronics, material (chemical) characterisation, display systems, surface treatment, fundamental physics, environmental & health.

Gated detectors can be used to determine optical parameters from which fundamental plasma properties can be derived. Accurate nanosecond-scale gating of image intensifier-based detectors can be used to sample plasma dynamics, or to isolate the useful plasma information generated by pulsed sources such as lasers. Techniques for plasma analysis include Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and Thomson scattering. From this analysis plasma parameter such as temperature and electron density can be measured optically.

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X-Ray Imaging

Plasmas emit a broad spectrum of photon energies including in the soft and hard X-ray range. X-ray images can be acquired either through direct absorption of X-rays onto a 2D silicon-based camera sensors, for energies <20 keV, or using scintillators lens or fibre coupled to a CCD or sCMOS detector.

X-rays can be used to identify the fine structure of chemical species as well as understanding material composition which is not possible in the visible range.

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Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) provides information on the elemental/chemical composition of samples, through the analysis of the plasma emission resulting from the micro-ablation of the target by a pulsed laser. It can be used to grade metals, measure concentration or ratios of elements in different engineered materials, as well as identify impurities or trapped species in material matrix e.g. adsorbed species in fusion reactors/tokamaks plasma-facing components.

Echelle spectrographs combined with fast gated ICCDs are particularly well suited to LIBS analysis, as they provide simultaneously high spectral resolution and very large spectral bandpass up to hundreds of nanometres.

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This non-invasive laser scattering-based spectroscopy technique provides molecular information (composition, structure) about the sample. It can be used to assess the effect of material matrix disruption due to a variety of external factors e.g. temperature changes/shock, mechanical stress, or to identify and understand the impact of impurities, adsorbed molecules, or defects on the material mechanical characteristics. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) can be used to non-invasively measure the temperature of plasmas.

For organic materials, Raman signal competes with fluorescence from the sample - a near-infrared laser or UV laser (with wavelength outside the absorption range of the molecule) can be used to greatly minimise or supress unwanted fluorescence contribution.

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Author Title Year
S Shetty Depth profile CF LIBS analysis of the wall deposited layer in the COMPASS tokamak after LiSn testing campaign 2023
A Roldan LIBS investigation of metals suitable for plasma-facing components: Characteristics and comparison of picosecond and... 2021
I Jogi LIBS study of ITER relevant tungsten–oxygen coatings exposed to deuterium plasma in Magnum-PSI 2021
D Dwivedi CF-LIBS study of pure Ta, and WTa + D coating as fusion-relevant materials: a step towards future in situ compositional... 2021
D Zhao Highly depth-resolved characterization of fusion-related tungsten material based on picosecond laser-induced breakdown... 2020
G Maurya Study of the different parts of a tokamak using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 2020
K Lee An Outlook into a Possible Intensified Camera Based Thomson Scattering System for High Temperature Plasmas 2019
K Yamasaki Observation of the Spatial Profile of Deuterium/Hydrogen Ratio Using Bulk Charge Exchange Emission 2018
A Curtis Micro-scale fusion in dense relativistic nanowire array plasmas 2018
Y Liu Neutron and gamma-ray effects on charge-coupled device during deuterium discharges in Large Helical Device 2018