Photostimulation and Optogenetics enables precise optical manipulation of complex biological networks. More researchers are exploiting these techniques in fields as diverse as neural mapping, visual regeneration and vascular hypertension. Optogenetics allows observations that cannot be determined by other means at the organ, tissue and cellular levels.
|Illumination Power Required||Type of Experiment||Mosaic||Micropoint||Illumination Requirement||Example Applications|
|Ablation Studies||Pulsed||Axotomy. Cut microtubules or cytoskeleton. Wound healing assays|
|DNA Damage||Pulsed/CW||DNA damage/repair, gene expression, developmental and cancer studies|
|Uncaging||Pulsed/CW||Determine function of biomolecules within the cell and/or organism context|
|FRAP/FLIP/FRET||CW||Observe protein dynamics, fusion and binding events. Cell compartmentalisation and localization|
|Photoswitching/Photoconversion||CW||Study the function of proteins and molecules within complex pathways|
|Phenotype Marking||CW/LED||Simultaneous multi-region photoactivation. Simultaneous photoactivation for identification and sorting|
|User Defined Complex Regions of Illumination||CW/LED||Define complex regions of interest: target specific cell structures, groups of cells or tissues|
|Optophysiology and Optogenetics||CW/LED||Cell & Neuronal signalling, opsin controlled secondary messengers e.g. Ca2+. Optically controlled protein switching. Signalling cascades. Combine with electrophysiology|
Pulsed - A pulsed dye laser provides a wide range of wavelengths and high energy at up to 20 pulses per second. While a solid state pulsed laser delivers higher peak power at higher repitition rates.
CW - MicroPoint can be used with CW (continuous wave) lasers for scanned FRAP and other high power density applications. Mosaic can be coupled with Andor's HLE for high power bleaching applications across the visible spectrum.
LED - LED light sources coupled with Mosaic provide illumination powers suitable for many optogenetic probes e.g. ChRh, light-induced dimerization systems and many others.